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In the theory of computationa branch of theoretical computer sciencea deterministic finite automaton DFA —also known as deterministic finite acceptor DFAdeterministic finite state machine DFSMor deterministic finite state automaton DFSA —is a finite-state machine that accepts or rejects strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation or run of the automaton for each input string.

In search of the simplest models to capture finite-state machines, Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts were among the first researchers to introduce a concept similar to finite automata in The figure illustrates a deterministic finite automaton using a state diagram. In this example automaton, there are three states: S 0S 1and S 2 denoted graphically by circles.

Equivalencia de Autómatas AFD y AFND by Luis Rangel on Prezi

The automaton takes a finite sequence of 0s and 1s as input. For each state, there is a transition arrow leading out to a next state for both 0 and 1. Upon reading a symbol, a DFA jumps deterministically from one state to another by following the transition arrow. For example, if the automaton is currently in state S 0 and the current input symbol is 1, then it deterministically jumps to state S 1.

A DFA has a start state denoted graphically by an arrow coming in from nowhere where computations begin, and a set of accept states denoted graphically by a double circle which help define when a computation is successful. A DFA is defined as an abstract mathematical concept, but is often implemented in hardware and software for solving various specific problems.


For example, a DFA can model software that decides whether or not online user input such as email addresses are valid.

Autòmat finit determinista – Viquipèdia, l’enciclopèdia lliure

DFAs recognize exactly the set of finkto languages[1] which are, among other things, useful for doing lexical analysis and pattern matching. Otherwise, it is said that the automaton rejects the string. A deterministic finite automaton without accept states and without a starting state is known as a transition system or semiautomaton.

For more comprehensive introduction of the formal definition see automata theory. According to the above definition, deterministic finite automata are always complete: While this is the most common definition, determihista authors use the term deterministic finite automaton for a slightly different notion: A 1 in the input does not change the state determinitsa the automaton.

When the input ends, the state will show whether the input contained an even number of 0s or not. The DFAs are closed under the following operations.

Deterministic finite automaton

For each operation, an optimal construction with respect to the number of states has been determined in the state complexity research. A run of a given DFA can autmoata seen as a sequence of compositions of a very general formulation of the transition function with itself.

Here we construct that function.

This trick is called currying. Repeated function composition forms a monoid. For the transition functions, this monoid is known as the transition monoidor sometimes the transformation semigroup. The construction can also be reversed: A local automaton is a DFA for which all edges with the same label lead to a single vertex.


Local automata accept the class of local languagesthose for which membership of a word in the language is determined by a “sliding window” of length two on the word.

Aktomata Myhill graph over an alphabet A is a directed graph with vertex set A and subsets of vertices labelled “start” and “finish”. The language accepted by a Myhill graph is the set of directed paths from a start vertex dfterminista a finish vertex: In a random DFA, the maximum number of vertices reachable from one vertex is very close to the number of vertices in the largest SCC with high probability.


DFAs are one of the most practical models of computation, since there is a trivial linear time, constant-space, online algorithm finiot simulate a DFA on a stream of input. Also, there are efficient algorithms to find a DFA recognizing:. On the other hand, finite state automata are of strictly limited power in the languages they can recognize; many simple languages, including any problem that requires more than constant determinisra to solve, cannot be recognized by a DFA. The classic example of a simply described language that no DFA can recognize is bracket or Dyck languagei.

Another simpler example is the language consisting of strings of the form a fjnito b n for some finite but arbitrary number of a ‘s, followed by an equal number of b ‘s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. DFSA may also refer to drug-facilitated sexual assault.

Unrestricted no common name Context-sensitive Positive range concatenation Indexed — Linear context-free rewriting systems Tree-adjoining Context-free Deterministic context-free Visibly pushdown Regular — Non-recursive. Any language in each category is generated by a grammar and by an automaton in the category in the same line. Retrieved from ” https: Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL Use dmy dates from July All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from March Articles with unsourced statements from January Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 3 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Type-0 — Type-1 — — — — — Type-2 — — Type-3 — —.