For years the pharmaceutical industry has relied heavily upon the American. Welding Society’s AWS D weld dis- coloration chart1 to gage the acceptability. AWS D () SS Discoloration – Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. AWS D – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.
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It is conventional wisdom that d18. semiconductor industry was, and remains, the primary driver for the continuous improvement of orbital autogenous weld profiles and internal cleanliness for process gas delivery tubing.
However, in recent years, this focus on smooth, clean, particle-free internal weld requirement has migrated from the semiconductor industry to the biopharmaceutical industry, and on to the food equipment industry.
The initial purpose of internal tube purging with inert gas usually argon was the prevention of surface oxidation on the internal diameter of the tubing surrounding the weld Heat Affected Zone. Figure 1 – AWS D In the interest of exercising control over the weld profile, the ID purge is introduced with a certain level of pressure, and in order to maintain consistency and repeatability that pressure must be consistent throughout the weld, and from weld s18.2 weld.
The internal pressure at the weld location, typically arrived at empirically, is influenced by the gas flow aw and the size of the exit orifice. In addition, measuring the pressure some distance from the weld location due to pressured drop will not provide an accurate method d118.2 determining the pressure at the weld zone.
Many methods have been devised to deliver the purge gas to the weld site, but few methods exist to control the internal gas pressure, thus the internal weld profile.
Purging for Improved Weld Profile | Arc Machines, Inc.
SEMI Standard F78 includes a chart with minimum and maximum purge pressures and flow rates for various tube sizes and wall thicknesses. Since the pressures are given as a range, they serve as a d1.2 starting point for the empirical determination of the best pressure for the ideal weld profile.
The combination of flow rate and prepurge time determines d81.2 much oxygen is still present, and thus, the amount of weld color caused by oxidation. In order for all color to be eliminated, oxygen levels must depending on the material fall below approximately 20 ppm. The prepurge time is an empirically derived value dependent on many factors including tube size, gas flow rate, exit orifice size, number, sizes and locations of dead-legs or other components that can trap atmosphere, and thus take more time to purge.
Most users are satisfied with the results obtained with pure argon as a purging medium; although a few organizations like to add a small percentage of hydrogen to produce a reducing environment. However, given the dangers associated with the use of hydrogen, it is hard to recommend it unless a critical need exists. Purging for suitable weld color is relatively awa. However, gauging the internal pressure such that the weld ID profile is acceptably flat is a more difficult task.
Experimentation is required to establish the ideal pressure for a given tube size, wall thickness and material. Once that is determined, awe next problem is to correlate the required pressure at the weld with the measured pressure at the delivery inlet. One way to establish the inlet pressure is to repeat the empirical testing with the inlet pressure as the controlled variable.
However, this value will only be aww for the specific assembly tested. If another configuration is to be welded, the entire experiment must be repeated. This experimentation requires several trial pressures, with a weld coupon created for each test condition, until acceptable results awx obtained; a time consuming and costly activity.
In addition, most standard gas pressure regulators are not nearly accurate enough to deliver the exacting performance required.
Orbital Welding Internal Pressure Control. Since the internal pressure at the weld-site is dependent upon the purge gas delivery pressure, the distance from the entry measurement point and the weld, and the gas venting rate, a closed loop pressure controller is required, such that a specific, low value pressure can be maintained.
Purging for Improved Weld Profile
Since the pressures are quite low, on the order of 0. This level of measurement and as permits the EXEL SG-1 to repeatedly maintain the exact internal pressure required for a perfect weld. The only remaining hurdle is to obtain the corresponding inlet pressure for the known weld pressure, and fortunately, the EXEL SG-1 also provides the capability of measuring the inlet and weld pressures simultaneously.
The unit then utilizes this offset for all welds performed with this same configuration. The required weld pressure is input to the device, and it correctly offsets the pressure for the tubing configuration as tested.
The input gas is controlled both asw pressure and flow, using a variable orifice iris controlled by a microprocessor in a closed loop system. This variable orifice is especially important because as the joint is welded shut, the effective c18.2 gas aaws area is reduced, so as the joint is sealed the SG-1 is making real-time adjustments to accurately maintain the required pressure.
Dennis Cobb has spent more than 25 years both designing and managing the design of semiconductor capital equipment. He is a registered professional California Electrical Engineer. Welding Journal, July Purging for Improved Weld Profile.