Kibler et al reported the reliability of a visually based classification system for scapular dysfunction that defined 3 different types of motion abnormalities: type 1 . PDF | Introduction Scapular dyskinesis is a condition responsible for Type III dyskinesis with posterior prominence of the inferomedial angle, Management Scapular dyskinesis: Diagnosis and treatment R Postacchini 1 *, S. Mobility Myths with Dr. Quinn | Scapular Winging | – Duration: 13 Juggernaut Training Systems , views ·

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A volleyball player with Type II dyskinesis itpo by the prominence of the entire medial border of the right scapula arrow. The third stage is to observe the scapular motion while elevating and lowering the arm with some 3 to 5 lb weight in one hand and then in the other [ 16 ].

Scapular dyskinesia: evolution towards a systems-based approach

escapula However, the results of rehabilitation are poorly known. The notion of scapular dyskinesis for the purposes of the present review does not include presentations where there is a defined abnormality of the neuromuscular system; for example, neuritis, neuropathy, neuropraxia or other forms of peripheral nerve injury. It is therefore not alterations to the appearance of dyskinesis per se that is the intended aim of the improvement tests but rather the reduction in reported symptoms that can be achieved diskinfsia their use.

Each rater then independently rated the test movements for each shoulder as having normal motion, subtle dyskinesis, or obvious dyskinesis.

Isometric Scapular Pinch test: Return to sport at low level may be allowed when significant improvement in tissue stretching is obtained. Table 1 Subjects with proven or possible dyskinesis evaluated in the articles analysed in this study Sport played Number of players Baseball 18111620 Rugby 10 Water polo 16 89 Tennis 1530 81 Volleyball 130 33 Swimming 16 19 Badminton 7 NR NR, not reported.

In addition to their agonistic role specific shoulder muscles also stabilize against destabilizing forces created by other shoulder muscles but this is far from static. Rehabilitation programs The aim of the rehabilitation is to restore scapular muscular control and balance [ 24 ].


Comparison of 3-dimensional scapular position and orientation between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. Tspine Extension Ex 4. Historically, scapular dyskinesia has been used to describe an isolated clinical entity whereby an abnormality in positioning, movement or function of the scapula is present.

Table 1 Subjects with proven or possible dyskinesis evaluated in the articles analysed in this study. Clinical assessment of scapular positioning in patients with shoulder pain: Br J Sports Med ; 47 Giving high doses of antipsychotics by injection also increases the risk of developing acute dystonia. The group of McClure et al. Subacromial impingement There are many factors that may cause subacromial impingement. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are of little clinical value when it is considered that:.

Full return to competitive sport can be permitted after complete resolution of escaapular scapulothoracic alterations, but rehabilitation should be pursued at least for 4 to 6 months.

Open in a separate window. If the scapular and rotator cuff components are required to work together functionally, they should be trained as such. Scapular positioning in patients with shoulder pain: The interdependence of the scapula, rotator disjinesia and kinetic chain requires clinicians to question the desirability of isolating one part of the system from the other. The scapula is stabilized and therefore not working in its dynamic role.

The onset is almost always insidious.

Scapular dyskinesis: Diagnosis and Musculoskeletal Medicine

Schmitt L, Snyder-Mackler L. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 20 Subgroup analysis of which type of patients respond best to which type of intervention would be revealing.

A total of athletes competing in a National Collegiate Athletic Association sport that required repetitive overhead activity were recruited for this study. As noted previously, when a patient seeks consultation for any of these pathologies, the posterior aspect of the shoulder in motion should be observed in order to both better diagnose and treat the underlying condition. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. Visible alterations in scapular position and motion patterns have been termed scapular dyskinesis 1 and are believed to occur as a result of changes in activation of the scapular stabilizing muscles 2 ; damage to the long thoracic, dorsal scapular, or spinal accessory nerves; or possibly reduced pectoralis minor muscle length.


This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Finally, the evaluator determines if this maneuver decreases or alleviates the pain.


Escapulaf instrument consists of two in combination squares in which one of the squares was attached in an inverted position to the ruler of the second square. Diskinexia fact, it may be found either in asymptomatic subjects or in patients with pain in the shoulder girdle [ 3456 ]and, in both cases, in subjects playing esscapular overhead sports or in athletes involved in several types of overhead sports, such as baseball, rugby, waterpolo, tennis, volleyball, swimming and badminton, as reported in the literature, [ 5789101112 ] and in patients with sequelae of clavicle fractures or AC joint injuries [ 1314 ].

Clinical implications of scapular dyskinesis in shoulder injury: Linking assessment to rehabilitation The flowchart in Fig.

E, Kennedy J, Kennedy R. Correlation design using ratings from multiple pairs of testers.

Basic science and principles of assessment and clinical interventions. Muscle which must relax or work eccentrically to allow the desired movement to occur. Specificity of the lateral scapular slide test in asymptomatic competitive athletes.

Studies have shown that the push-up plus, wall slide exercises and shoulder elevation in the scapular plane increase the activation of SA, with the push-up plus inducing minimal activation of the UT [ 2627 ]. These findings are consistent with a study showing that section of AC and coracoclavicular ligaments in cadavers could cause dyskinesis of the scapula and clavicle [ 22 ].