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In previous lesson, we have discussed measurement, including error, consistency, accuracy and sensitivity. In this lesson, we will proceed to measuring instrument.
In measuring instrument, we will cover vernier caliper, micrometer, stopwatch, ammeter, voltmeter and thermometer. In this lesson, we will focus on Vernier caliper, where we will discuss the sensitivity of vernier caliper, label of the parts of vernier caliper and function of the parts.
We will also learn how to take reading from a vernier caliper, including how to read the main scale and the vernier scale, and also how to determine the zero error from a vernier caliper. In order to use Vernier caliper to make measurement, placed the object in the inside jaw or outside jaw of the caliper and elekrrolisis slide the vernier scale until the object is held firmly between the jaws.
Ka,ium reading of the measurement is the sum of the reading of main scale and Vernier scale. For example, in the image above, the reading of the main scale is 4. Therefore, the reading is 4. In the very next slide, we are going to discuss how to take reading from the main scale and Vernier scale. Therefore, the reading of the main scale is 0. The reading of the vernier scale is indicated by the mark on the vernier scale coincides with any mark on the main scale. Each division on the vernier ioddia represents a length 0.
Therefore, the reading of the vernier scale is 0. As we have learned before, a zero error arises when the measuring instrument does not start from exactly zero. The kwlium above shows the reading on a Vernier caliper when the jaw of the caliper is closed firmly. We can see that the reading of the main scale is zero and the reading on the vernier scale is also zero. In this case, we say the caliper has no zero error. The diagram above shows the reading on a vernier elekyrolisis when the jaw of the caliper is closed firmly.
We can see that the reading of the main scale does not start from zero. Instead, the reading is slightly higher than zero, which means the caliper is subject to positive zero error. The vernier scale registers a reading of 0. A positive zero error is read from the zero mark on the left hand side of the Vernier scale.
We can see that the reading of the main scale does not start from zero, too. Instead, the reading is slightly lower than zero, which means the caliper is subjected to negative zero error. The Vernier kaliuj registers a reading of 0. A lot of students lalium think that this is the zero error. Well, actually, this is not the negative zero error.
In this case, the zero error larutzn In previous lesson, we have discussed the classification of physical quantities. In this lesson, we will continue our discussion on scientific notation and prefixes.
Under prefixes, we oarutan discuss how to use the scientific calculator to solve problems involving prefixes. We will also discuss the conversion of prefixes, including the conversion of the unit of area,volume, speed and density. Scientific notation also known kwlium Standard form is a convenient way to write very small or large numbers.
The number 10,, million can be further expressed as 10 10 10 to the power of This is much easier to be read. We can straight away tell its value just by a glance. In this notation, numbers are separated into two parts, a real number with an absolute value between 1 and 10 and an order of magnitude value written as a power of This method to write a number is called the scientific notation. Prefixes is a letter or a few letters placed in front of a word to modify its meaning.
The prefixes that we are going to discuss here is the SI prefixes, which is used in front of an SI unit. An SI unit used with prefixes indicate multiples or submultiples of a base unit. For example, kilometer — kilo is the prefix of the base unit, meter. The prefix act as a multiplier. In this case, kilo represents a multiple of The below table shows the list of prefixes that you need to know in SPM syllabus.
A more complete list can be found in wikipedia. One of the question that student always ask is: You need to memorise all of these prefixes together with its standard form and symbol. They are Mega, kilo, deci, centi, milli and micro. If you own a Casio fxMS calculator, then I have a good news for you.
Most of the prefixes in this table can be found in your calculator.
We will discuss this in the later part of this presentation. We can convert a number with prefix to a normal number by multiplying the number by the value of the prefix.
For example, 23 MHz. The value of Mega is 1 million or 10 ellektrolisis.
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Therefore, we can rewrite the number as 23 x 10 6 Hz. In conclusion, we convert a number with prefix to a normal number by multiplying the number with the value of the prefix.
We can convert a normal number to a larutna with prefix by dividing the number by the value of the prefix. For example,Hz is equal to how many MHz? To write a normal number with a prefix, we divide the number by the value of the prefix and we get 0. In conclusion, we convert a normal number to a number with prefix through dividing the number by the power of the prefix.
If we want to convert a normal number to a number with prefix, we divide the number by the value of the prefix. If we want to convert a number ladutan prefix to a normal number, we multiply the number by the value of the prefix.
If you own a casio fxMS calculator, you can do the conversion much easier. You can find the following prefixes in the calculator.
Tera, Gega, Mega, kilo, mili, micro, nano, pico and fento. Take notes that deci and centi are not given. We are going to deal with this problem in the later slide. In the calculator, we press   . Kilo is at [button 6]. Therefore, we press [shift] . You can see a small letter k shows on the screen here. The answer will immidiately shown on the screen. We can also convert a normal number to a number with prefix easily.
In previous slide, we have learned that if we want to convert a normal number to a number with prefix, we divide the number by the value of the prefix. For example, if we want to know 0. In our fxMS calculator, we press.
For example, if we want to key in 0. I know for a lot of students when they did something wrong in the calculator, they will delete it by pressing the [on] button and redo everything again.
This is a very bad habit. By pressing the [on] button, you are not only delete everything on the screen, you will also delete everything in the replay memory in your calculator as well. Your calculator is a very sophisticated machine. It can remember whatever you perform in the calculator previously up to bytes of memory as long as you do not switch off the calculator or delete all the calculation by pressing the [on] button.
The correct way to delete only current calculation is using the [AC] button. You can delete everything on the screen by pressing the [AC] button. Pressing [AC] does not clear replay memory. You can always navigate to all the calculation you have performed by pressing the up or down arrow key. You can also move the cursor to the location you want by using the left or right arrow key. By doing so, you can check what is the mistake you have done and then fix it. So, make it a habit to use the [AC] button to delete but not the [on] button.
We have a syntax error.
You will find that the screen will immediately shows the last calculation we have performed. Well, I guess the problem is on the mili. Mili is a prefix. It is not a number.
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A prefix must attached to a number. It cannot stand alone. Which means, instead of putting mili, we need to put 1 mili.