Logical Devices, Inc. provides this manual “as is” without warranty of any kind, either should not be viewed as any sort of definitive reference on the CUPL. WinCUPL is a language designed to support the development of PLDs .. into a document such as a manual and file for input into the CUPL simulator. 2. See the Atmel – WinCUPL User’s Manual for more information. Logic: examples of simple gates expressed in CUPL. */ inva =!a;.

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There are several classes of programmable logic devices: ASICs, unlike other devices, may contain analog, digital, and combinations of analog and digital functions. In general, they are mask programmable and not user programmable.

This means that manufacturers will configure the device to the user specifications. They are used for combining a large amount of logic functions into one device. However, these devices have a high initial cost, therefore they are mainly used where high quantities are needed. Due to the nature of ASICs, CUPL and other programmable logic languages cannot support these devices Basic architecture of a user programmable device First, a user programmable device is one that contains a pre-defined general architecture in which a user can program a design into the device using a set of development tools.

The general architectures may vary but normally consists of one or more arrays of AND and OR terms for implementing logic functions. Many devices also contain combinations of flip-flops and latches which may be used as storage elements for inputs and outputs of a device.

More complex devices contain macrocells. Macrocells allow the user to configure the type of inputs and outputs that are needed for a design. A F3 PT4 C. A F5 PT6 C. Even though the name does not imply programmable logic, PROMs, are in fact logic. They are mainly used for decoding specific input combinations into output functions, such as memory mapping in microprocessor environments. PALs have a very popular architecture and are probably the most widely used type of user programmable device.

If a device contains macrocells, it will usually have a PAL architecture. Other macrocells have more than one register, various type of feedback into the arrays, and occasionally feedback between macrocells. These devices are mainly used to replace multiple TTL logic functions commonly referred to as glue logic. They are designed to emulate many common PALs thought the use of macrocells.

If a user has a design that is implemented using several common PALs, he may configure several of the same GALs to emulate each of the other devices. This will reduce the number of different devices in stock and increase the quantity purchased. Usually, a large quantity of the same device should lower the individual device cost.

Also these devices are electrically erasable, which makes them very useful for design engineers.

PLAs probably have the greatest flexibility of the other devices with regard to logic functionality. They typically re feedback from the OR array back into the AND array which may be used to implement asynchronous state machines.

Most state machines, however, are implemented as synchronous machines. This allows for most any design to be implemented within these devices. Simply put, they are electrically programmable gate array ICs that contain multiple levels of logic.

FPGAs feature high gate densities, high performance, a large number of user-definable inputs and outputs, a flexible interconnect scheme, and a gate-array-like design environment. Each CLB contains programmable combinatorial logic and storage registers. The combinatorial logic section of the block is capable of implementing any Boolean function of its input variables. Each IOC can be programmed independently to be an input, and output with tri-state control mmanual a bi-directional pin.


It also contains flip-flops that can be used to buffer inputs and outputs. The interconnection resources are a network of lines that run horizontally and vertically in the rows and columns between the CLBs. Long lines run the entire length or breadth of the device, bypassing interchanges to provide distribution of critical signals with minimum delay or skew. Designers using FPGAs can define logic functions of a circuit and revise these functions as necessary.

Thus FPGAs can be designed and verified in a few days, as opposed to several weeks for custom gate arrays. However, these are also the most power hungry. Generally speed is proportional to power consumption Device Packaging The packaging for devices fall into two categories: Certain devices have the capability of being erased and reprogrammed.

These devices are erased by either applying UV light or a high voltage to re-fuse the crossconnection link. A UV erasable device will have a window in the middle of the device that allows the UV light to enter inside.

An electrically erasable device usually need to winucpl a high voltage applied to certain pins to erase the wincupp. As the name suggests, these devices can only be programmed once. Recent advances allow reprogramming without the use of high voltages Figure Most devices come in the following physical configurations: These devices can be rectangular winncupl pins on two sides, square with pins on all sides, or square with pins on the underside.

It is important for the hardware and software development tools to fully support as many device types as possible to wicnupl full advantage of the myriad of devices on the market. Most hardware programmers receive a fuse information file from a software development package in ASCII format. This file contains the information necessary for the programmer to program the device. The JEDEC file contains fuse connections that are represented by an address followed by a series of 1 s and 0 s where a 1 indicates a disconnected state and a 0 indicates a connected state.

The JEDEC file can also contain information that allows the hardware programmer the ability to perform a functional test on the device. A functional test may be performed after programming a device, provided that the hardware and software development package can support the generation and use of test vectors. Test vectors consist of a list of pins for the design, input values for each step of the functional test, and a list of expected outputs from the circuit.

The programmer sequences through the input values, looks for the predicted outputs, and reports the results to the user. This allows design engineers and production crews the ability to verify that the programmed device works as designed. A Top-Down design is characterized by starting with a global definition of the design, then repeating the global definition process for each element of the main definition, etc.

CUPL offers many features that accommodate this type of nanual. This chapter describes the instructions that CUPL offers for implementing a design. Nodes and pinnodes, used to mqnual buried registers, should also be declared at the beginning of the source file.

Pin assignment needs to be done if the designer already knows the device he wants to use. These are used to define equations that are used by many variables or to provide an easier understanding of the design. Variable names that end in a decimal number from 0 to 31 are referred to as indexed variables. They can be used to represent a group of address lines, data lines, or other sequentially numbered items. When indexed variables are used in bit field operations the variable with index number 0 is always the lowest order bit Table Wincuppl, the numbers may have a value from 0 to A number may be df in any one of the four common bases: The default base for all numbers used in the source wincjpl is hexadecimal, except for device pin numbers and indexed variables, which are always decimal.


Binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbers can have don t care X values intermixed with numerical values Using List Notation A list is a shorthand winxupl of defining groups of variables.

It is commonly used in pin and node declarations, bit field declarations, logic equations, and set operations. Square brackets wncupl used to delimit items in the list.


After making a bit field assignment using the FIELD keyword, the name can be used in an expression; the operation specified in the expression is applied to each bit in the group. This is used to represent the variables in the bit field.

Each bit represents one member of the bit field. The bit number which represents a member of a bit field is the same as the index number if indexed variables are used.

This means that A0s will always occupy bit 0 in the bit field. Wkncupl is mainly used for winucpl and manipulating address and data buses. Four standard logical operators are available for use: The following table lists the operators and their order of precedence, from highest to lowest.

The following table lists these operators and their order of precedence, from highest to lowest. The following table shows the arithmetic function and its bases. The compiler checks the usage of the extension to determine whether it is valid for the specified device and whether its usage conflicts with some other extension used. CUPL uses these extensions to configure the macrocells within a device. This way the designer does not have to know what fuses control what in the macrocells.

To know what extensions are manusl for a particular device, use CBLD with the -e flag. AP L Asynchronous preset of flip-flop. IO Figure shows the use of extensions. Note that this figure does winucpl represent an actual circuit, but shoes how to use extensions to write equations for different functions in a circuit. AP extension is used to set the Asynchronous Preset of a register to an expression. This winncupl is supported on the Atmel ATF family of devices. AR extension is used to define the expression for Asynchronous Reset winckpl a register.

This is used in devices that have one or more product terms connected to the Asynchronous reset of the register. Devices which have a pin-controlled reset inputs, such as the Atmel ATF family also use this suffix.


It serves to specify the input to the Clock enable term of the register. CK extension is used to select a product term driven clock. Some devices have the capability to connect the clock for a register to one or more pins or to a product term.

CK extension will select the product term. Use this suffix to connect the clock for a register to the dedicated clock pin for any Atmel device that has this feature except the ATVB refer to. CKMUX extension is used to connect the pin clock to the register.